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Chronic obesity due to excess body weight can result in negative health effects. The World Health Organization defines morbid obesity as a body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m2 or ≥ 35 kg/m2 in patients with overweight-related comorbidity.
Treatment options for morbid obesity include lifestyle interventions alone or in combination with motivational stays, surgical treatments and pharmacological treatments.
We found low to moderate quality evidence indicating that, compared to lifestyle interventions alone:
- Lifestyle interventions with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass probably improve weight loss at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years and probably slightly improve triglycerides, blood pressure, plasma HbA1c, and blood glucose change at 1 year
- Lifestyle interventions with naltrexone-bupropion probably improve weight loss at 13 months
- Lifestyle interventions with liraglutide probably improve weight loss at 13 months
- Lifestyle interventions with orlistat may improve weight loss at 1, 2, and 4 years
- Lifestyle interventions with sleeve gastrectomy may improve weight loss at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years