The Norwegian Directorate of Health will run anti-smoking campaigns in 2012. The main objectives of the campaigns are to motivate smokers to quit, and to prevent smoking among children and adolescents. The Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services has made a rapid review on what strategies are most successful in anti-smoking campaigns.
None of the included systematic reviews or primary studies directly answer the questions asked. However, we have chosen to present the main results from 10 articles because they give some information about effects of anti-smoking campaigns and about effects of different ways of framing messages.
The main results are:
- Anti-smoking campaigns in the media can be effective for adults and young people.
- Anti-smoking campaigns in the media are often less effective among groups with lower socio-economic status.
- There are varying results in systematic reviews on health message framing in general (no differences in effect shown for e. g. positive and negative messages).
- Messages adapted for Afro-American populations with low income may be more effective than standard messages.
The results we present in this report are not based on a systematic search of the literature, neither have we critically appraised the quality of the documentation we present.