Youth Studies 2000-2009
Health studies among 15-16-year-olds in 2000-2004
The youth studies began with 15-16-year-olds from Oslo- and Hedmark in 2000-2001. Adolescents from four other counties - Oppland, Nordland, Troms og Finnmark - participated in 2002, 2003 og 2004.
The adolescents were asked to complete a questionnaire about different topics such as health, disease, diet, sport, local environment and how they felt. The main questionnaire was identical for each county, plus some additional questions that varied between counties.
Blood samples and other biological material were not included in the studies. Height and weight data are self-reported.
The adolescents decided whether or not to participate. They had been given an information brochure in advance and completed a consent form before completing the questionnaire. Their parents were informed. In most venues, a public health nurse was responsible for carrying out the study.
The youth study in Oslo 2000-2001 was also called UNGHUBRO because it was carried out with a health study among adults; HUBRO. 7343 adolescents in 10th grade (15-16 years-old) participated which was 88 per cent of the potential group.
Hedmark and Oppland
The studies took place in spring 2001 in Hedmark and autumn 2002 in Oppland. The response was 88 per cent in Hedmark and 90 per cent in Oppland.
Nordland, Troms and Finnmark
The Nordland study took place in spring 2004. In Nordland, the youth study was a collaboration between the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and the University of Tromsø.
The response was 88 per cent which gave a good picture of adolescent health and lifestyle in 2004 in Nordland.
In Troms and Finnmark, the youth studies took place in spring 2003 in a collaboration between the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and the Centre for Sami Health Research at the University of Tromsø. The study took place in Tromsø in 2002.
The response was 81 per cent in Troms and 71 per cent in Finnmark, which is somewhat lower than the other counties. However, the participation is still considered to be relatively high and gives a good picture of adolescent health and lifestyle in Troms og Finnmark in 2002-2003.
Studies of 18-19 year-olds in Oslo and Hedmark in 2004
All the 15-16 year-olds who took part in the Oslo and Hedmark studies in 2000-2001 were contacted in spring 2004 and asked to complete another questionnaire called "Ungdom 2004" (Youths 2004). In addition there was a group of "new" 18-18 year-olds. In total, 4,700 adolescents took part, of which 4,000 participated twice. The purpose was to study the link between physical activity on adolescent mental health.
Like the 15-16 year-olds, the 18-19 year-olds were asked questions about health habits, physical and mental disorders and diseases.
The results are important to improve the health service for adolescents in the future.
All participants completed a questionnaire and consent form. The participants were asked to provide an oral mucosa sample.
Number of participants
Almost all the students registered in the school list in Oslo in 2004 took part. 90 per cent of those invited at school took part. In the postal study, the response was lower at 43 per cent. 77 per cent of the Oslo adolescents who took part in 2001, participated in 2004. In Hedmark 55 per cent took part. In total, 4,000 took part in both 2001 and 2004.
Ungdom 2004 was a collaboration between the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and the University of Oslo.
Log T, Hartz I, Handal M, Tverdal A, Furu K, Skurtveit S. The association between smoking and subsequent repeated use of prescribed opioids among adolescents and young adults--a population-based cohort study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2011 Jan;20(1):90-8. Epub 2010 Dec 1.
- Lien L, Green K, Thoresen M, Bjertness E. Atopic conditions and mental health problems: a 3-year follow-up study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;19(9):705-13. Epub 2010 Apr 1.
Bjertness E, Sagatun A, Green K, Lien L, Søgaard AJ, Selmer R. Response rates and selection problems, with emphasis on mental health variables and DNA sampling, in large population-based, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of adolescents in Norway. BMC Public Health. 2010 Oct 12;10:602.
- Haavet OR, Sagatun A, Lien L. Adolescents' adverse experiences and mental health in a prospective perspective. Scand J Public Health. 2010 Jul 1. [Epub ahead of print]
- Lien L, Haavet OR, Dalgard F. Do mental health and behavioural problems of early menarche persist into late adolescence? A three year follow-up study among adolescent girls in Oslo, Norway. Soc Sci Med. 2010 Aug;71(3):529-33. Epub 2010 May 21.
Lien L, Sagatun A, Heyerdahl S, Søgaard AJ, Bjertness E. Is the relationship between smoking and mental health influenced by other unhealthy lifestyle factors? Results from a 3-year follow-up study among adolescents in Oslo, Norway. J Adolesc Health. 2009 Dec;45(6):609-17. Epub 2009 Jun 21.
Halvorsen JA, Dalgard F, Thoresen M, Bjertness E, Lien L. Is the association between acne and mental distress influenced by diet? Results from a cross-sectional population study among 3775 late adolescents in Oslo, Norway. BMC Public Health. 2009 Sep 16;9:340.
Lien L, Green K, Welander-Vatn A, Bjertness E. Mental and somatic health complaints associated with school bullying between 10th and 12th grade students; results from cross sectional studies in Oslo, Norway. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2009 Mar 23;5:6.
Halvorsen JA, Dalgard F, Thoresen M, Thoresen M, Bjertness E, Lien L. Itch and mental distress: a cross-sectional study among late adolescents. Acta Derm Venereol. 2009;89(1):39-44.
- Lien L, Haavet OR, Thoresen M, Heyerdahl S, Bjertness E. Mental health problems, negative life events, perceived pressure and the frequency of acute infections among adolescents. Results from a cross-sectional, multicultural, population-based study. Acta Paediatr. 2007 Feb;96(2):301-6.
Lien L, Lien N, Heyerdahl S, Thoresen M, Bjertness E. Consumption of soft drinks and hyperactivity, mental distress, and conduct problems among adolescents in Oslo, Norway. Am J Public Health. 2006 Oct;96(10):1815-20.
Lien L, Dalgard F, Heyerdahl S, Thoresen M, Bjertness E. The relationship between age of menarche and mental distress in Norwegian adolescent girls and girls from different immigrant groups in Norway: results from an urban city cross-sectional survey. Soc Sci Med. 2006 Jul;63(2):285-95. Epub 2006 Feb 9.
Lien L, Claussen B, Hauff E, Thoresen M, Bjertness E. Bodily pain and associated mental distress among immigrant adolescents. A population-based cross-sectional study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;14(7):371-5.
- Grøholt EK, Stigum H, Nordhagen R. Overweight and obesity among adolescents in Norway: cultural and socio-economic differences. J Public Health (Oxf). 2008 Sep;30(3):258-65. Epub 2008 May 8.
- Grotvedt L, Stigum H, Hovengen R, Graff-Iversen S. Social differences in smoking and snuff use among Norwegian adolescents: a population based survey. BMC Public Health. 2008 Sep 22;8:322.
Vatn AS, Bjertness E, Lien L. Mobbing og helseplager hos barn og ungdom. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2007; 127:1941-4
- Sagatun A, Søgaard AJ, Bjertness E, Selmer R, Heyerdahl S. The association between weekly hours of physical activity and mental health: a three-year follow-up study of 15-16-year-old students in the city of Oslo, Norway. BMC Public Health. 2007 Jul 12;7:155.
- Lien N, Kumar BN, Lien L. Overvekt blant ungdom i Oslo. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2007 Sep 6;127(17):2254-8.
- Sagatun A, Lien L, Søgaard AJ, Bjertness E, Heyerdahl S. Ethnic Norwegian and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo, Norway. A longitudinal study comparing changes in mental health. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2008 Feb;43(2):87-95. Epub 2007 Nov 9.
Zachrisson HD, Rödje K, Mykletun A. Utilization of health services in relation to mental health problems in adolescents: a population based survey. BMC Public Health. 2006 Feb 16;6:34.
Lien L, Oppedal B, Haavet OR, Hauff E, Thoresen M, Bjertness E. Own and parental war experience as a risk factor for mental health problems among adolescents with an immigrant background: results from a cross sectional study in Oslo, Norway. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2006 Nov 3;2:30.
Lien L, Tambs K, Oppedal B, Heyerdahl S, Bjertness E. Is relativelyyoung age within a school year a risk factor for mental health problems and poor school performance? A population-based cross-sectional study of adolescents in Oslo, Norway. BMC Public Health. 2005 Oct 5;5:102.
Kumar BN, Holmboe-Ottesen G, Lien N, Wandel M. Ethnic differences in body mass index and associated factors of adolescents from minorities in Oslo, Norway: a cross-sectional study. Public Health Nutr. 2004 Dec;7(8):999-1008.