Polio vaccination for stays in countries with polio outbreaks
The World Health Organization (WHO) is still reporting an increase in cases of polio (poliomyelitis) in several countries. The Norwegian Institute of Public Health recommends vaccination before travelling to countries with outbreaks to protect against infection and to avoid further spread of the virus.
As of November 2017, the recommendations apply to the following countries: Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, Syria, DR Congo, Cameroon, Niger, Chad, Central African Republic and Laos.
- Statement on the 15th IHR Emergency Committee meeting regarding the international spread of poliovirus (WHO August 2017)
- Global polio eradication initiative (GPEI)
Updated advice about travel vaccines is available on our webpages:
Vaccine advice with travel and longer stays in countries with polio outbreaks
WHO requires countries with a high risk of export of the polio virus to offer vaccination to everyone travelling from these countries. This applies to Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria (November 2017). This comes in addition to intensification of polio vaccination to the population. To prevent the export of infection from these countries, vaccination must be given 4 weeks and 12 months before leaving these countries. This must be documented with an international vaccine certificate.
The vaccination advice applies to people of all ages. Children must also have been vaccinated during the 12 months before departure from these countries, even though the Norwegian immunisation programme considers them to be fully vaccinated. When infants are going to travel to the above countries, the public health clinic may consider earlier vaccination, and may consider the 4-dose programme for infants who will not have time to get two doses of polio vaccine before departure. The polio vaccine is administered at vaccination clinics, public health clinics or by a general practitioner.
Syria and DR Congo also have polio outbreaks, but these are of a milder type (vaccine-derived poliovirus). WHO and Norwegian health authorities recommend that people travelling from these countries should follow the same advice.
Cameroon, Niger, Chad, Central African Republic, Guinea and Laos are considered to be vulnerable to polio outbreaks, even though they have not yet reported any polio cases. When travelling to these countries, it is important to ensure updated polio vaccination.
Polio (poliomyelitis) is a viral disease caused by three known types of polio virus: types 1, 2 and 3. It can be eradicated by a vaccine because it is only found in humans.
Over 90 % of those infected have no symptoms but excrete the virus in faeces. 9 per cent have vague, influenza-like symptoms, while less than 1 per cent develop paralysis. The paralysis can affect muscles anywhere in the body but most often in the legs or arms. If the diaphragm muscles are affected, severe breathing difficulties and even death may occur.
The last major polio epidemic in Norway took place in the mid 1950s.