Other tick-borne infections
Diseases spread by tick bites are an increasing problem in Norway. Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are the most common, but anaplasmosis, babesiosis and tularemia are also diseases that can be transmitted to humans through tick bites.
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The disease is caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilium. It can also cause disease in animals and is the most common tick-borne disease in sheep (tick-borne fever). Usually, the infection causes no or very mild symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle and joint pain and general weakness. The infection can be treated effectively with antibiotics.
The disease is caused by the parasite Babesia sp. The disease is known in cattle, but only diagnosed in one patient in Norway. In humans, infection gives symptoms such as malaria, fever, muscle pains and haemolytic anemia.
Tularemia (rabbit fever)
The disease is caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. In addition to being transferred via tick bites, the bacterium can be transmitted to humans via direct contact with infected animals (especially hares and rodents) through drinking water, inhalation of contaminated dust or mosquito bites.
The disease can appear in several ways and differs in the clinical disease picture. In Norway inflammation is frequently seen in the mouth and throat after consuming contaminated water or painful sores after animal contact / insect bites / tick bites. The infection is treated with antibiotics.
Tick-borne infections not found in Norway, but elsewhere:
- Typhus and other rickettsioses
- Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and others
- Recurrent fever