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Vivian Kjelland,Vivian Kjelland,Katrine Mørk Paulsen,Andrew Jenkins,Snorre Stuen,Arnulf Soleng,Kristin Skarsfjord Edgar,Heidi Elisabeth H. Lindstedt,Åshild Kristine Andreassen,
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TBEV (Tick-borne encephalitis virus) and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are among the most important emerging vector-borne diseases in Europe transmit-ted by the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. I. ricinus is also known to transmit other pathogenic microorganisms like-louping ill virus, Anaplasma phagocytophi-lum, Neoerlichia spp. or Rickettsia spp. which may have an influence of the pathogenesis in humans and animals. Factors like climate change, human be-haviour and migrating animals are involved in the distribution of diseases. The main route of disease transmission is through tick bites, but wild and produc-tion animals are also susceptible to infection and can serve as sentinels/ early warning systems for transmission. 653 serum samples were collected in 15 of the 19 counties in mainland Nor-way from wild reindeer, moose, roe deer and red deer. 3240 nymph and 234 adult ticks were collected from six location sites of three counties in Norway, and 29 milk and serum samples were collected from bovine milk production farms in areas where TBE is known to be present. TBE IgG seroprevalence results from cervids shows that 32 of 653 tested sera had antibodies. The posi-tive TBE IgG sera were found in the counties of Vestfold, Østfold, Aust-Agder, Vest-Agder, Rogaland, Nord-Trøndelag and Nordland. Additional tests to discriminate between TBE and louping ill are currently under way (PCR and neutralization assays). The Estimated Pooled Prevalence (EPP) and the minimum infection rate (MIR) were calculated for nymphs and adults. TBEV were detected in most sites analysed with an overall EPP of 0.26 % in nymphs and 2.62 % in adults. The overall prevalence of DNA analysis of B. burgdorferi s.l. in adult ticks was 6.41%, A. phagocytophilum in nymph was 8% and in adult 19%. Of the total 29 analysed individual cow milk samples, results indicate prevalence of up to 25%, and preliminary PCR results seem to confirm the presence of the viral RNA in individual milk samples. These results seem to indicate that TBEV (and likely other emerging agents) is circulating in wild species and production animals, for which further studies should be conducted to evaluate the importance of these animals in the maintenance and transmission dynamics of TBEV in Norway or elsewhere.
TBEV (Tick-borne encephalitis virus) and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are among the most important vector-borne diseases that are emerging. They are the main diseases transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. I. ricinus is known to transmit other pathogenic microorganisms like- louping ill virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and endosymbionts like-Wolbachia pipientis and Midichloria mitochondrii that may have an influence of the pathogenesis in humans and animals. Factors like climate change, human behavior and migrating animals are involved in the distribution of diseases. The main route of disease transmission is through tick bites, but infection through alimentary system for serious infectious agents like TBEV and wild and production animals as sentinels for transmission. The knowledge of natural foci and prevalence of these infectious microorganisms is important for risk assessment of human disease. Preliminary results from 3240 nymph and 234 adult ticks were collected from six location sites of three counties in Norway. The tick samples were analyzed and minimum infection rate/prevalence was calculated. Body fluids of the host animals are valuable epidemiological parameters for TBEV like cow milk and serum from sheep and cows. This study confirms the existence of TBEV endemic foci compared to earlier study. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l., were analyzed in adult ticks while the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum, W. pipientis, M. mitochondrii were studied in nymph and adults. TBEV were detected in a new location in Hordaland county. The detection of TBEV in milk and serum from cows has never been reported in Norway before.