What did we ask young people about in HUBRO?
Young people in Oslo were asked to complete amain questionnaire and a supplementary questionnaire. Themain questionnaire was divided into 12 themes and the supplementary one into 10. The main questions that we asked concerned whether they suffer from certain illnesses or worries, whether they agree or disagree with certain statements, how often they usually do certain things, how often they eat/drink various products, etc.
Here is a summary of the key words used in both the main and the supplementary questionnaires.
Questions on asthma, allergies, eczema, diabetes, ear infections, psychological worries, serious injuries, reduced vision/hearing, questions on headaches, pains in the arms/legs, aches in the shoulders/neck/back and stomach-aches, whether the pains lead to missing school or reducing leisure-time activities.
2. Dental health
Questions on toothaches, cavities, brushing their teeth.
3. Movement and physical activity
Questions on how often they exercise, take part in competitive sports, go walking or hiking in the countryside. How many hours they spend in front of the TV, video, PC. Do they catch a school bus or do they walk or cycle to school.
4. Smoking, intoxicants and doping
Questions on smoking, snuff, alcohol and doping agents (not drugs, but “sports doping”).
5. Food, drink and eating habits
Questions on how often they eat fruit, soft fruits, cheese, vegetables, fish, chocolate, crisps. Drinks: whole milk, low-fat milk, soft drinks, juice, water. How much money they spend during a week on sweets, different types of fast food and soft drinks. Do they use food supplements, cod-liver oil, etc. Questions on height and weight, are they happy with their weight, possibly how much they would like to weigh. Questions on dieting, eating disorders, possibly what methods they have used to try and lose weight.
6. Stress and stress management
Questions on whether they have felt afraid, sad/depressed, under stress, whether they have experienced feelings of helplessness, sleeping problems. Do they feel that they stay calm and manage to tackle challenges/adversity. Have they suffered a serious illness in the past year or a death or serious illness in their family or among their close friends. Do they feel great pressure of work at school, do they suffer difficulties in concentrating. Have they suffered bullying at school. Questions on reading and writing difficulties.
7. Use of the health services
In the past year, have they paid a visit to their GP, a youth health station, used alternative treatment, the educational psychology services, paid a visit to a psychologist or used other health services. Have they been admitted to hospital or gone to an A&E department.
8. Education and education plans
What kind of education do they want to take? What marks are they getting? Have they got a paid job outside school? How much money did they spend last week?
9. Growing up and belonging
Questions on where they live, how often they have moved, whether their parents are married, divorced, dead. Do their parents work; if yes, what do they do.
10. Relationships with family and friends
Questions on who they live with, how many brothers and sisters they have. Do they feel close to their family, do their parents know what they do in their free time, do they feel close to the friends they have, will they be able to get help from their friends if they need it. Questions on whether they have been subjected to violence by other young people or by adults.
11. Sexual behaviour and contraception
Questions on whether they are sexually active and, if yes, at what age they had sex for the first time, use of contraceptives, pregnancy.
12. Use of medicines
Questions on the use of a number of medicines, including drugs for asthma, painkillers, anti-depressants, sleeping pills.
Questions specific to girls
Questions on menstruation and contraception.
The supplementary questionnaire consists of 10 themes.
1. Strong and weak points
A whole series of questions on what they feel about their life, how they tackle life’s big and little challenges. For example: are they preoccupied about being friendly to others, are they often sad, do they feel under pressure, do they get on well in their surroundings, do they have any worries, are they teased, do they easily lose confidence, are they prepared to share things with others, do they feel they are well liked. If they have problems, how long ago did they start.
2. Worries and problems
Have they had any problems over the last year, for example financial, psychological, conflicts with parents or friends, drinking or drug problems.
3. The situation at school
Questions on how they are doing at school, bullying/belonging, whether they are happy with the help they get from their teachers, is their schoolwork interesting, is it stressful, is it important to do well at school.
4. Relationships with the family
Questions on quarrels in the family, distribution of money, on what it’s like living up to the expectations the family has, satisfying the family’s or one’s own needs?
5. Culture and contacts
Questions on what it’s like to have contact with people from different cultures. For example, do ethnic Norwegian youths and youths from minority backgrounds have any contact in their free time? Do youths from minorities live like ethnic Norwegian youths? Is it difficult for youths from minorities to live a Norwegian lifestyle? Do youths from minorities see themselves as Norwegian or as Pakistani, Vietnamese, etc.? Have any of them been insulted, threatened or attacked because of their cultural background? Do young people feel accepted by people from other cultures?
6. Experiences of war
Have the youths and/or their parents experienced war at first hand?
Questions on whether they have experienced grief that has had an impact on their health. What was the cause of the grief, did they get professional help and/or were they prescribed medicine?
8. Dental health
The questions on dental health focused on anxiety when going to the dentist’s (fear of going to the dentist’s). What do youths feel the day before they go to the dentist’s, when they are sitting in the dentist’s chair, etc.
9. Prevention of injuries
A series of questions on safety measures related to sports activities and driving, for example seat belts, helmets, knee/elbow pads.
10. Physical activity
A number of questions on whether they take part in various types of sport and, if yes, how often they exercise?