• LA-MRSA = MRSA that spread easily among animals, such as pigs. The bacteria are transmitted between humans and animals
• MRSA is Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to common types of antibiotics
• MRSA is associated with an increased risk of disease and death, mainly due to reduced antibiotic efficacy with severe staphylococcal infections
The study analysed epidemiological data collected while handling LA-MRSA in Norwegian herds of pigs, from the first discovery in 2013 until 2015. In addition, the researchers performed genetic testing of bacterial isolates from all individuals identified with LA-MRSA since 2008, and they collected samples from all animals, people and pig farm environments that were affected by outbreaks in 2013 and 2014. These findings show that pig farm workers are the principal source for the introduction of LA-MRSA in Norwegian herds of swine. This transmission route was previously unknown.
“This is an important discovery and herds must be monitored if they are to remain free of MRSA, particularly in countries where there is little or no import of live pigs,” says Petter Elstrøm, researcher at the Department of Antibiotic Resistance and Infection Prevention.
The strategy's goal has been to prevent LA-MRSA from being introduced and spread among Norwegian herds, thereby preventing pig herds from becoming a major source of MRSA dissemination to the general population. The strategy has been effective and any further transmission from animals or humans in the affected farms to the general population has not been detected. Recommendations about who should be tested for LA-MRSA before contact with livestock have been issued to prevent transmission from farm workers to pigs.
“MRSA rarely causes severe infections among otherwise healthy people but a rising incidence of MRSA in the population will contribute to an increased infection burden for vulnerable patients in the health services,” says Elstrøm.
Since 2014, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority and the Norwegian Veterinary Institute have continuously monitored all pig herds in Norway, in close collaboration with the swine industry, and this surveillance will continue.
“Our strategy of slaughtering pig herds where LA-MRSA bacteria are detected plus farm disinfection was developed in a close collaboration between the authorities and swine industry. It is an excellent example of the "One Health" approach,” says Elstrøm.
More research data
An ongoing study is analysing data on the effect of each control measure within the strategy, but the present article shows that the Norwegian LA-MRSA strategy has so far been a success. Norway is currently the only country that has managed to stop these bacteria from establishing among pig herds, thereby preventing further dissemination to the general population and the health service. In other countries with a low MRSA prevalence, such as Denmark and the Netherlands, the spread of LA-MRSA among pig herds contributed to a significant increase in MRSA prevalence in the population.
The study was a collaboration between the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, the Norwegian Veterinary Institute, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority and the State Serum Institute in Denmark. The study is published in the Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases.
According to the WHO, antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest health threats we face today.
- MRSA CC398 in humans and pigs in Norway: A «One Health» perspective on introduction and transmission Carl Andreas Grøntvedt; Petter Elstrøm; Marc Stegger; Robert Leo Skov; Paal Skytt Andersen; Kjersti Wik Larssen; Anne Margrete Urdahl; Øystein Angen; Jesper Larsen; Solfrid Åmdal; Siri Margrete Løtvedt; Marianne Sunde; Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2016;