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Many types of vitamin supplements are available on the market, but little is known about whether vitamin D3 obtained from fat-containing capsules differs in bioavailability from that of solid tablets. We performed a randomized trial in order to compare two common vitamin D supplements. Our objective was to test whether four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 µg vitamin D3 given as a fish oil capsule produces a larger increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels compared with the same dose of vitamin D3 given as a multivitamin tablet. A total of 55 healthy subjects aged 19-48 yr (mean 28.5 yr) completed the study during late winter 2005. After completing a self-administered questionnaire about diet and sun exposure and having a non-fasting venous blood sample drawn, participants were randomized to receive either multivitamin tablets of type Vitaplex ABCD, or fish oil capsules. A second blood sample was drawn after 28 days of supplementation. The vitamin D3 content of both supplements was assessed by an independent laboratory; mean (SD) 9.79 (1.51) µg and 9.99 (0.23) µg, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using linear regression analysis with change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D as the dependent variable and intervention supplement as the independent variable, adjusted for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at baseline. In the total sample, mean (95% CI) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 44.3 (38.0, 50.7) nmol/l at baseline, and it increased by 34.1 (30.5, 37.6) nmol/l during the intervention. The increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.33). We conclude that fish oil capsules and multivitamin tablets containing 10 µg vitamin D3 produced a similar increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels over a 4-week period.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate job-related values among business school students based on a multi-national survey carried out last year covering leading national business schools in 11 European countries. Job-related values of future business leaders may be important for values pursued by the general population. The values pursued by the business elite may set the stage for increasing the inequality in material rewards or provide the basis for social solidarity. Previous research has indicated that business students are relatively materialistic and career-oriented, male more so than female students. However, in a recent study of Norwegian business students, we found personal development to be the major motivational force for students of both genders. In the present paper we will investigate if this is the case for European business students in general, or whether Scandinavian business students have less materialistic job-values than the students from central European counties. We will also study variation in job-values by sex and social background.